Foundation for Advancement in Cancer Therapy

Non-Traditional Approaches to
the Theories, Treatments and Prevention of Cancer

Broccoli

September 19, 2016

Broccoli was grown in France and Italy in the sixteenth century, but was not well known in this country until 1923, when the D’Arrigo Brothers Company made a trial planting of Italian sprouting broccoli in California. A few crates of this were sent to Boston, and by 1925 the market was well established. Since then, the demand for broccoli has been steadily on the increase.

Broccoli is a member of the cabbage family. California, Arizona, and Texas are the main broccoli-producing states.

When choosing broccoli, look for tenderness in the stalk, espcially the upper portion. If the lower portion of the stalk is tough and woody, and if the bud dusters are open and yellow, the broccoli is over mature and will be tough. Fresh broccoli does not keep, so purchase only as much as you can immediately use.

Broccoli is often gas-forming, but if cooked in a steamer or over a very low fire, this may be avoided. Broccoli is best if under-cooked, because the more green that is left in broccoli, the more chlorophyll will be left to counteract the sulfur compounds that form gas.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

All of the foods in the cabbage family, including broccoli, are best if eaten with proteins, because the combination helps drive amino acids to the brain. Broccoli is high in vitamins A and C, and is low in calories. It is beneficial to the elimination system.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 103

Protein: 9.1 g

Fat: 0.6 g

Carbohydrates: 15.2 g

Calcium: 360 mg

Phosphorus: 211 mg

Iron: 5.6 mg

Vitamin A: 9,700 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.26 mg

Riboflavin: 0.59 mg

Niacin: 2.5 mg

Ascorbic acid: 327 mg

Radish

September 6, 2016

The radish is a member of the mustard family, but is also related to cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and turnips. After this vegetable was introduced into Middle Asia from China in prehistoric times, many forms of the plant were developed. Radishes are a cool season crop, and the peak period is April through July. The American varieties can be used for both roots and tops in salads, and cooked.

A good-quality radish is well-formed, smooth, firm, tender, and crisp, with a mild flavor. The condition of the leaves does not always indicate quality, for they may be fresh, bright, and green, while the radishes may be spongy and strong, or the leaves may be wilted and damaged in handling, while the radishes themselves may be fresh and not at all pithy. Old, slow-growing radishes are usually strong in flavor, with a woody flesh. Slight finger pressure will disclose sponginess or pithiness.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Radishes are strongly diuretic and stimulate the appetite and digestion. The juice of raw radishes is helpful in catarrhal conditions. The mustard oil content of the radish makes it good for expelling gallstones from the bladder.

A good cocktail can be made with radishes. This cocktail will eliminate catarrhal congestion in the body, especially in the sinuses. It will also aid in cleansing the gall bladder and liver. To make this cocktail, combine one-third cucumber juice, one-third radish juice, and one-third green pepper juice. If desired, apple juice may be added to make this more palatable. An excellent cocktail for nervous disorders is made from radish juice, prune juice, and rice polishings. This drink is high in vitamin B and aids in the flow of bile.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 49

Protein: 2.9g

Fat: .3g

Carbohydrates: 10.3g

Calcium: 86mg

Phosphorus: 89mg

Iron: 2.9mg

Vitamin A: 30 I.U.

Thiamine: .09mg

Riboflavin: .09mg

Niacin: .9mg

Ascorbic Acid: 74mg

Onion

August 22, 2016

Onions are believed to have originated in Asia. When the Israeli’s were in the wilderness after being led out of Egypt by Moses, they yearned for onions and other vegetables they were used to eating. Onions were used by the Egyptians as offerings to their gods. They were fed to the workmen who built the pyramids, and Alexander the Great gave onions to his troops to promote their valor.

The odoriferous onion and the dainty lily are members of the same family, Liliaceae. The substance that gives the onion its distinctive odor and flavor is a volatile sulfurous oil which is about half eliminated by boiling. This volatile oil is what causes tears. Holding onions under cold water while peeling them prevents the oil fumes from rising, so use water and spare your handkerchief.

Onions lose approximately 27% of their original ascorbic acid (vitamin C) after five minutes of boiling.

There are two classes of onions—strong and mild. The early grown onions are generally milder in flavor and odor and are preferred for raw use. Each of these two classes can be again categorized into four colors—red, brown, white and yellow. The white onions are the mildest. Each has many varieties.

Onions are also further divided by size for different uses. The smallest size is the pickling onion, also knows as pearl or button onion, and is not more than one inch thick. The next size is the boiling onion, which is usually an inch to two inches in diameter. The next larger size is preferred for chopping or grating. The very large Spanish or Bermuda onions are mild and sweet and good for slicing. They average two and one-half to two and three-quarters inches in diameter. In the trade, the term Valencia is used to mean Spanish-type yellow onions. The globe and flat-type yellow onions are generally referred to as yellows, and white onions of the globe and semi-globe types are generally referred to as whites.

Texas is the main early spring producer; California and Texas the main late spring states; California and New Jersey the most important early summer producers; and New York, Michigan, Minnesota, Colorado, California, Idaho, and Oregon the principal late summer states.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Onions are one of the earliest known food medicines, and were used for hundreds of years for colds and catarrhal disorders and to drive fermentations and impurities out of the system. The liquid from a raw onion that has been chopped up fine, covered with honey, and left standing for four or five hours, makes an excellent cough syrup. It is wonderful for soothing an inflamed throat. Onion packs on the chest have been used for years in bronchial inflammations.

Onions contain a large amount of sulfur and are especially good for the liver. As a sulfur food, they mix best with proteins, as they stimulate the action of the amino acids to the brain and nervous system. Whenever onions are eaten, it is a good idea to use greens with them. Parsley especially helps neutralize the effects of the onion sulfur in the intestinal tract.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 157

Protein: 6 g

Fat: 0.4 g

Carbohydrates: 36 g

Calcium: 111 mg

Phosphorus: 149 mg

Iron: 2.1 mg

Vitamin A: 160 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.15 mg

Riboflavin: 0.10 mg

Niacin: 0.6 mg

Ascorbic acid: 38 mg

Avocado

August 1, 2016

There are over 400 varieties of avocado. Some have smooth skin and are green, and some are rough and black. The avocado is considered a neutral fruit, because it blends well with almost any flavor and mixes well with either vegetables or fruit.

The avocado came from Persia. It has been popular in South America, Central America, and Mexico for centuries. The ancient Aztecs left evidence that the avocado was in their diet. as did the Mayans and Incas. It is known that the avocado was eaten by Jamaicans in the seventeenth century. This fruit grows wild in tropical America today, but is primarily grown as a crop in southern California.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Avocado at its peak contains a high amount of fruit oil. Fruit oil is a rare clement, and it gives avocado its smooth, mellow taste and nut-like flavor. Fruit oil also gives the avocado its high food energy value. Unlike most fruit, it contains very few carbohydrates.

The avocado contains fourteen minerals, all of which regulate body functions and stimulate growth. Especially noteworthy are its iron and copper contents, which aid in red blood regeneration and the prevention of nutritional anemia. It also contains sodium and potassium, which give this fruit a high alkaline reaction.

The avocado contains no starch, little sugar, and has some fiber or cellulose.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 568

Protein: 7.1 g

Fat: 55.8 g

Carbohydrates: 21.4 g

Calcium: 34 mg

Phosphorus: 143 mg

Iron: 2.0 mg

Vitamin A: 990 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.37 mg

Riboflavin: 0.67 mg

Niacin: 5.4 mg

Ascorbic acid: 48 mg

Cucumber

July 25, 2016

he cucumber is said to be native to India, although plant explorers have never been able to discover a wild prototype. Cucumbers have been cultivated for thousands of years, and records indicate that they were used as food in ancient Egypt, and were a popular vegetable with the Greeks and Romans. The cucumber is one of the few vegetables mentioned in the Bible.

In 200 B.C. a Chinese ambassador: traveled as far as Persia, where he saw cucumbers for the first time. Later, he brought them to China. At a later date, an English sea captain, returning from the West Indies, brought back pickled gherkins to Mrs. Samuel Pepys. Shortly after this period, cucumbers were grown in England.

Occasionally, in a collection of old glass, a plain glass tube or cylinder resembling a lamp chimney with parallel sides will tum up. This may be an English cucumber glass, a device used at one time to make cucumbers grow straight. George Stephenson, inventor of the locomotive, is credited with its invention.

Florida is the principal producer of cucumbers, supplying al­ most one-third of the total United States commercial crop for mar­ ket. California, North and South Carolina, New Jersey, and New York are also large producers.

Cucumbers for slicing should be firm, fresh, bright, well­ shaped, and of good medium or dark green color. The flesh should be firm and the seeds immature. Withered or shriveled cucumbers should be avoided. Their flesh is generally tough or rubbery and somewhat bitter. Over maturity is indicated by a generally over­ grown, puffy appearance. The color of over mature cucumbers is generally dull and not infrequently yellowed, the flesh is tough, the seeds hard, and the flesh in the seed cavity almost jelly-like. Cu­ cumbers in this condition should not be used for slicing. Some varieties are of solid green color when mature enough for slicing. but usually a little whitish color will be found at the tip, with a tendency to extend in lines along the seams, where they advance from pale green to white, and finally yellow with age.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Cucumbers are alkaline, non-starchy vegetables. They are a cooling food, especially when used in vegetable juices. Long ago it was believed that people would die from eating the peelings, but this is not true.

Cucumbers are wonderful as a digestive aid, and have a purify­ing effect on the bowel. It is not necessary to soak them in salt water. Serve them thinly sliced, raw, in sour cream, lemon juice, or yogurt for a delightful summer dish. They have a marvelous effect on the skin, and the old saying ”keeping cool as a cucumber” is literally true because of its cooling effect on the blood.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 39

Protein: 2.2 g

Fat: 0.3 g

Carbohydrates: 8.6 g

Calcium: 32 mg

Phosphorus: 67 mg

Iron: 1.0 mg

Vitamin A: 0 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.11 mg

Riboflavin: 0.14 mg

Niacin: 0.7 mg

Ascorbic Acid: 27 mg

Tomato

July 18, 2016

It is believed that the present type of tomato is descended from a species no larger than marbles, that grew thousands of years ago. The tomato is native to the Andean region of South America and was under cultivation in Peru in the sixteenth century at the time of the Spanish conquest. Before the end of the sixteenth century, the people of England and the Netherlands were eating and enjoying tomatoes. The English called it the “love apple”, and English romancers presented it as a token of affection; Sir Walter Raleigh is said to have presented one to Queen Elizabeth.

M. F. Corne is credited with being the first man to eat a tomato. His fellow citizens of Newport, Rhode Island, erected a monument to him, because the tomato was considered poisonous until Mr. Corne dared to eat one.

By cultivation and use the tomato is a vegetable; botanically, it is a fruit, and can be classified as a berry, being pulpy and containing one or more seeds that are not stones. It is considered a citric acid fruit and is in the same classification as oranges and grapefruit. Some oxalic acid is also contained in the tomato.

Consumption of tomatoes is on the increase. They are the third most important vegetable crop on the basis of market value; the first is potatoes. Tomatoes are produced in all states. In order of importance, the producers are: Texas, California, Florida, Ohio, and Tennessee. In the first four month~ of the year heavy shipments are imported from Mexico and Cuba. Fresh tomatoes are available all year, either from domestic production or imports. June and August are the peak months.

Tomatoes number greatly in variety, but it is estimated that only sixteen varieties are included in 90 percent of all tomatoes grown in the United States. Their characteristic colors range from pink to scarlet. A white tomato has recently been developed that is supposed to be acid-free. A good, mature tomato is neither overripe nor soft, but well developed, smooth, and free from decay, cracks, or bruises. Spoiled tomatoes should be separated immediately from the sound ones or decay will quickly spread.

If fresh, ripe tomatoes are unavailable, canned tomato and canned tomato juice are fine substitutes. It is preferable to use tomato puree, rather than canned tomatoes put up in water. Puree contains more vitamins and minerals.

Tomatoes are best when combined with proteins. Use tomatoes in both fruit and vegetable salads. They are cooling and refreshing in beverages, and are especially good as a flavoring for soups. Tomatoes can be used to give color, and make green salads more inviting.

Tomato juice should be used very soon after it has been drawn from the tomato, or after the canned juice is opened. If it is opened and left that way, it will lose much of its mineral value, because it oxidizes very quickly.

Tomatoes should be picked ripe, as the acids of the green tomato are very detrimental to the body and very hard on the kidneys. Many of the tomatoes today are grown in hothouses and are picked too green and allowed to ripen on their way to the markets or in cold storage plants built for this purpose. If the seeds, or the internal part of the tomato, is still green, while the outside is red, this is an indication that the fruit has been picked too green.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The tomato is not acid forming; it contains a great deal of citric acid but is alkaline forming when it enters the bloodstream. It increases the alkalinity of the blood and helps remove toxins, especially uric acid, from the system. As a liver cleanser, tomatoes are wonderful, especially when used with the green vegetable juices.

In many of the sanitariums in Europe tomatoes are used as a poultice for various conditions in the body. There is a mistaken belief that tomatoes are not good for those who have rheumatism and gout. People with these conditions should mix tomato juice with other vegetable juices to avoid a reaction that may be too strong.

Whenever the blood is found to be stagnant in any part of the body, a tomato poultice is wonderful as a treatment in removing that stagnation. It acts as a dissolving agent or solvent.

Tomatoes are very high in vitamin value. They are wonderful as a blood cleanser, and excellent in elimination diets. However, they should not be used to excess on a regular basis. Tomato juice can be used in convalescent diets, in combination with other raw vegetable juices such as celery, parsley, beet, and carrot juice.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 97

Protein: 4.5 g

Fat: 0.9 g

Carbohydrates: 17.7 g

Calcium: 50 mg

Phosphorus: 123 mg

Iron: 2.7 mg

Vitamin A: 4,0801.U.

Thiamine: 0.23 mg

Riboflavin: 0.15mg

Niacin: 3.2 mg

Ascorbic acid: 102 mg

Cucumber

July 11, 2016

The cucumber is said to be native to India, although plant explorers have never been able to discover a wild prototype. Cucumbers have been cultivated for thousands of years, and records indicate that they were used as food in ancient Egypt, and were a popular vegetable with the Greeks and Romans. The cucumber is one of the few vegetables mentioned in the Bible.

In 200 B.C. a Chinese ambassador: traveled as far as Persia, where he saw cucumbers for the first time. Later, he brought them to China. At a later date, an English sea captain, returning from the West Indies, brought back pickled gherkins to Mrs. Samuel Pepys. Shortly after this period, cucumbers were grown in England.

Occasionally, in a collection of old glass, a plain glass tube or cylinder resembling a lamp chimney with parallel sides will tum up. This may be an English cucumber glass, a device used at one time to make cucumbers grow straight. George Stephenson, inventor of the locomotive, is credited with its invention.

Florida is the principal producer of cucumbers, supplying al­ most one-third of the total United States commercial crop for mar­ket. California, North and South Carolina, New Jersey, and New York are also large producers.

Cucumbers for slicing should be firm, fresh, bright, well­ shaped, and of good medium or dark green color. The flesh should be firm and the seeds immature. Withered or shriveled cucumbers should be avoided. Their flesh is generally tough or rubbery and somewhat bitter. Over maturity is indicated by a generally over­ grown, puffy appearance. The color of over mature cucumbers is generally dull and not infrequently yellowed, the flesh is tough, the seeds hard, and the flesh in the seed cavity almost jelly-like. Cu­ cumbers in this condition should not be used for slicing. Some varieties are of solid green color when mature enough for slicing. but usually a little whitish color will be found at the tip, with a tendency to extend in lines along the seams, where they advance from pale green to white, and finally yellow with age.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Cucumbers are alkaline, non-starchy vegetables. They are a cooling food, especially when used in vegetable juices. Long ago it was believed that people would die from eating the peelings, but this is not true.

Cucumbers are wonderful as a digestive aid, and have a purify­ing effect on the bowel. It is not necessary to soak them in salt water. Serve them thinly sliced, raw, in sour cream, lemon juice, or yogurt for a delightful summer dish. They have a marvelous effect on the skin, and the old saying ”keeping cool as a cucumber” is literally true because of its cooling effect on the blood.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 39

Protein: 2.2 g

Fat: 0.3 g

Carbohydrates: 8.6 g

Calcium: 32 mg

Phosphorus: 67 mg

Iron: 1.0 mg

Vitamin A: 0 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.11 mg

Riboflavin: 0.14 mg

Niacin: 0.7 mg

Ascorbic Acid: 27 mg

Pea

May 23, 2016

Evidence shows that the pea has been around since prehistoric times. Although the pea is of uncertain origin, it is probably native to Central Europe or Central Asia. It is also probable that peas were brought from Greece or Italy by the Aryans 2,000 years before Christ.

The green pea is a natural soluble mixture of starch and protein. Fresh peas are alkaline-forming, while dried peas have a tendency to produce allergic reactions and to cause gas, particularly when eaten with too much protein or concentrated starch. The best quality pea is one that is young, fresh, tender, and sweet. Use fresh, young peas in order to obtain the greatest food value and flavor. The pod should be velvety soft to the touch, fresh in appearance, and bright green in color. The pods should be well filled and the peas well developed, but not bulging. The large ripe pea is really a seed and should not be considered a vegetable.

The real “sugar” pea is grown primarily in Europe and is little known in the United States. Because Chinese food is so popular in this country, there is a variety of pea grown and picked for the thick, soft, green pods that are used in these dishes. Their roughage is great for the intestinal tract, and they are very nourishing. However, this herbaceous, tendril-climbing legume can be eaten, pod and all, in any variety, if picked young enough. Those people who are troubled with a lot of gas or with a sensitive stomach wall or intestinal tract may find the hulls of the more mature pea irritating. In such cases, the peas should be pureed, or liquefied, to avoid irritating disturbances.

Fresh green peas tend to lose their sugar content unless they are refrigerated to about 32 degrees F shortly after being picked. They should be cooked soon after they have been picked, for they lose their tenderness and sweetness as they age. Shell just before cooking, retaining a few of the pods to cook with the peas for additional flavor. Cook in as little water as possible, so that no water need be discarded after cooking. If some pot liquor does remain after cooking, use it soup or as a base in the liquefied vegetable drink.

Never cook peas in bicarbonate of soda water in order to keep their fresh green appearance. This method not only destroys the food value and digestibility of the pea, but is totally unnecessary. Peas cooked in a vessel that is vapor-sealed or that has a tight lid, or steamed in parchment paper, with little water, retain their flavor, greenness, and vitamins. When combined with carrots or turnips, peas are particularly tasty, and when a little onion is added, they need not be seasoned. If seasoning is desired, add a little dehydrated broth powder after cooking and serve with butter.

The pea is a fairly rich source of incomplete protein. As an alkaline ash vegetable, it is highly nutritious when eaten raw, and is more easily digested than beans. However, it takes a strong digestive tract to properly digest raw peas. To eat in their raw state, liquefy, and combine with other vegetables, proteins, or starches, to help aid in their digestion. Do not combine with fruits.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

This alkaline-reacting vegetable is an outstanding source of vitamins A, B1, and C. The pea pods are very high in chlorophyll, iron, and calcium-controlling properties. Discarded pods are discarded vitamins and valuable minerals. Fresh garden peas are slightly diuretic in action. They also give relief to ulcer pains in the stomach because they help use up the stomach acids. In cases of ulcers, however, peas should be pureed. People who have a vitamin A deficiency should eat them raw, liquefied, or in juice. They should be eaten in combination with non-starchy vegetables to get the full value of the vitamin A they contain.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 201

Protein: 13.7g

Fat: 9.8g

Carbohydrates: 36.1g

Calcium: 45mg

Phosphorus: 249mg

Iron: 3.9mg

Vitamin A: 1,390 I.U.

Thiamine: .69mg

Riboflavin: .33mg

Niacin: 5.5mg

Ascorbic Acid: 54mg

Okra

May 16, 2016

Okra is native to tropical Africa, where it has been cultivated for many centuries. It is now widely grown in warm regions. For many years it has held an important place among the garden vegetables of the southern states.

The young and tender seed pods of okra are used to give a pleasant flavor and provide thickening for soups and stews. In Louisiana, okra is used in Creole cookers and is the “gumbo” used in many dishes. It is excellent also as a boiled vegetable. Just wash it, boil about ten minutes in salted water until tender, drain, and serve with butter or lemon butter. Okra and tomatoes make a fine combination. Raw sliced okra is good in salads. Okra should preferably be cooked in stainless steel, agate, porcelain, earthenware, or glass utensils. Copper, brass, iron, or tin will cause the okra to discolor, turn black, and look unappetizing.

Okra is a soft-stemmed annual of the mallow family and is closely related to the shrubby althea. It grows three to five feet high, and bears yellow flowers which are followed by fruiting capsules or seed pods.

There are three general types of okra: tall green, dwarf green, and ladyfinger. Each of these in again divided according to length and color of the pods. Varieties in most common use are known to the seed trade as Perkins Mammoth, Long Green, Dwarf Green, and White Velvet. Clemson Spineless is of the same type as Perkins Mammoth Podded but has spineless pods and somewhat sparse foliage, making it less troublesome to harvest than other varieties.

Young, tender, fresh, clean pods of small to medium size usually are of good quality. Pods should snap or puncture easily. Pods that have passed their prime look dull and dry. They are usually woody, and the seeds are hard. If held too long, they are likely to become shriveled and discolored, and lack flavor.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The sodium content of okra is very high. It also contains a vegetable mucin that is soothing to the irritated membranes of the intestinal tract. Okra has an alkaline reaction.

Okra is made into tablets, and they are valuable in replenishing a sodium deficiency in the body and in replacing sodium lost through excessive perspiration. The tablets are also good for ulcers of the stomach.

This low-calorie vegetable helps keep the joints limber. Okra powder is very good to include in broths and soups. Because it contains a high amount of sodium, it is good for elderly people.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 140

Protein: 9.4 g

Fat: 0.8 g

Carbohydrates: 29.6 g

Calcium: 328 mg

Phosphorus: 199 mg

Iron: 2.8 mg

Vitamin A: 2030 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.49 mg

Riboflavin: 0.42 mg

Niacin: 2.8 mg

Ascorbic acid: 121 mg

Mushroom

May 2, 2016

The Pharaohs of Egypt monopolized mushrooms for their own use. They thought they were too delicate to be eaten by common people. The Egyptian potentates did not understand the sudden, overnight appearance of mushrooms, and consequently believed they grew magically. By the first century B.C., the mushroom had gained such a fine reputation among epicures of the Roman Empire that the poet Horace celebrated its goodness in verse. The Romans called mushrooms “food of the gods”, and served them on festive occasions. They were thought to provide warriors with unusual strength.

Up to the seventeenth century, only the wild types of mushrooms found growing in meadows and pastures were known. During the reign of Louis XIV, mushroom · growing was introduced in France. Parisian market gardeners experimented to learn the secrets of successful mushroom culture. By 1749 mushroom beds were cultivated in caves and cellars, and the results were much better’ than ·when they were grown outdoors. The British were raising mushrooms in hothouses sometime before 1700.

The commercial production of mushrooms in the United States started in the late 1890s when a group of florists in Chester County, Pennsylvania started growing them under the benches in their greenhouses. The greatest event in the history of mushroom culture in the United States occurred in 1926 when a farmer found a clump of pure white mushrooms in a bed of uniformly cream-colored fungi. Most of the mushrooms grown today are descendants of this white clump.

Mushrooms are now cultivated in specially constructed buildings that are windowless and in which temperature and humidity are controlled. Mushroom spawn is cultivated by laboratory scientists who sell it to the growers for inoculation of the mushroom beds. Such precise methods are necessary to provide pure spawn of known characteristics.

The introduction of mushrooms into gravies, sauces, soups, and other dishes adds zest and flavor, but they also are a fine food when served as a vegetable . Mushrooms require very little preparation. Wash, cut off the bottom portion of the stem if it has dried, and either slice the caps and stems or leave whole, depending on the method of cooking. Butter a deep pan, cut up the mushrooms so they fill the pan to a depth of about two inches, and simmer over a low· heat until the mushrooms are covered with their own juice. This may take more than ten minutes. Then, cook more briskly for about five minutes, until tender. Overcooking toughens mushrooms.

Green plants can get their food by manufacturing it in their leaves from air, water, sunshine , and soil nutrients, but mushrooms cannot do this. They have no leaves, so they must depend on green plants to make their food for them, and they cannot use it unless it is in the process of decay. Mushrooms propagate from spores, a brownish powder shed from the rounded head which, when ripe, opens like a parasol. However, cultivated mushrooms are not reproduced from spores, but from fine strands of mycelium, which are root like growths that spread through organic material. Most wild mushrooms are not poisonous, but unless you know the difference, you should leave them alone. It is not possible to tell by taste which mushrooms are dangerous. Some very unpalatable mushrooms are harmless, while others that have an agreeable taste are poisonous.

Scientists today say that darkness is not the primary requisite for growing mushrooms. They say that, for healthy growth, all mushrooms need constant temperature and protection against drafts.

The term mushroom refers to a large number of different species and varieties of fleshy fungi. Only one species is usually cultivated and that is Agaricus Campestris, which has a straight stem, a smooth cap of a shade varying from white or ivory to brown, and gills of different shades of pink. Most of the cultivated mushrooms grown in the United States are of the white variety variously known as Snow White, White King, White Queen, etc. This variety is very prolific and is preferred by nearly all markets because of its attractive, clean, white appearance.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Prior to the mid-1940s, all you needed to do to work up a hot argument among nutritionists was to say the word “mushrooms.” Scientists’ assertions about the food value of mushrooms ranged from calling them’ ‘vegetable beefsteak” full of proteins, to declaring that they had no protein and very little else. This confusion arose partly from the fact that mushrooms of many species were investigated and the results reported under a common head. A June 1946 report by William B. Eccelen, Jr. and Carl R. Fellers of the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station stated that cultivated mushrooms of the Agaricus Campestris type compare favorably in food value to many fresh fruits and vegetables.

Mushrooms are among the few rich organic sources of germanium, which increases oxygen efficiency of the body, counteracts the effects of pollutants, and increases resistance to disease. Because mushrooms are extremely low in calories, they are useful in reducing diets. They are also a good source of vitamin B.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 123

Protein: 11.9 g

Fat: 1.2 g

Carbohydrates: 19.4 g

Calcium: 26 mg

Phosphorus: 510 mg

Iron: 3.5 mg

Vitamin A: trace

Thiamine: 0.41 mg

Riboflavin: 2.02 mg

Niacin: 18.6 mg

Ascorbic acid: 14 mg

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