Foundation for Advancement in Cancer Therapy

Non-Traditional Approaches to
the Theories, Treatments and Prevention of Cancer

Grapefruit

February 8, 2016

The name grapefruit originated in the West Indies in the eighteenth century, perhaps because of the fact that its fruit grows in clusters of three to twelve or more, similar to grape clusters. This citrus fruit was cultivated more than 4000 years ago in India and Malaysia, but it was not until the sixteenth century that it was introduced to this country by the Spaniards. For many years it was not popular because of its slightly bitter taste. From 1880 to 1885 a group of Florida grapefruit growers shipped crates of the fruit to Philadelphia and New York and encouraged people to try it. In about 1915 the commercial sale of grapefruit expanded, until its production spread into three other states—California, Arizona, and Texas.

The United States furnishes about 97 percent of the world’s supply of grapefruit, and Florida and Texas together produce about 90 percent of the grapefruit grown in the United States. The Marsh seedless grapefruit is the most popular variety today.

The grapefruit tree is about the size of the orange tree and reaches a height of twenty to forty feet. Like the orange, it blooms in the spring. In California and Arizona, the fruit ripens throughout the year. Although grapefruit is available all year, it is most abundant from January through May. Grapefruit is also imported by the United States from Cuba in the late summer and early fall.

Grapefruit of good quality is firm, but springy to the touch, well-shaped, and heavy for its size—the heavier the fruit, the better. Do not choose soft, wilted, or flabby fruit. The heavy fruits are usually thin-skinned and contain more juice than those with coarse skin or those puffy or spongy to the touch.

Grapefruit often has a reddish brown color over the normal yellow, which is called “russeting.” Russeting does not affect the flavor in any way. Most of the defects found on the skin of the grapefruit are minor and do not affect the eating quality of the fruit. However, fruit with decayed spots is not desirable, as the decay usually affects the flavor. Decay may appear as a soft, discolored area on the stem end of the fruit or it may appear as a colorless area that breaks easily when pressure is applied. If the skin of the fruit appears rough, ridged, or wrinkled, it is likely to be thick-skinned.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Grapefruit is a subtropical acid fruit, and is highly alkaline in reaction. It is best eaten with other acid fruits, nuts, or milk. Eat grapefruit immediately after cutting into the rind to benefit from all of its goodness. For best digestion and assimilation, avoid eating grapefruit with sweeter fruits or with starches. The grapefruit is less acidulous than the lemon and is a good substitute when oranges or their juice cannot be tolerated, or when the alkaline reserves in the body need to be augmented.

Grapefruit is rich in vitamins C and B1, and is a good source of vitamin B12. It is low in calories, which makes it a good drink on a reducing diet. There is less sugar in grapefruit than in oranges. Eat the sun-ripened fruit when possible, as this fruit needs no sweetening, and is better for you. If sweetening is necessary, use a little honey.

Grapefruit is very rich in citric acids and their salts, and in potassium and calcium. Use it often in combination with meats, because grapefruit juice is excellent as an aid in the digestion of meats. However, avoid the overuse of all citric acid fruits as they are a powerful dissolver of the catarrhal accumulations in the body and the elimination of too much toxic material all at once may cause boils, irritated nerves, diarrhea, and other problems. People are often so eager to get vitamins and minerals into the body that they sometimes do not consider that the powerful action of citric acid causes irritation and discomfort.

When taken right before bedtime, grapefruit is conducive to a sound sleep. A drink of grapefruit juice first thing in the morning helps prevent constipation. It is also an excellent aid in reducing fevers from colds and the flu, and seldom causes allergic reactions.

Grapefruit rind contains the very valuable vitamin P, which is an important vitamin for healthy gums and teeth. This vitamin may be extracted by simmering the rind in water for about twenty minutes. Strain, and drink.

The sour taste of grapefruit increases the flow of digestive juices in the stomach. Grapefruit served at the beginning of a meal stimulates the appetite and helps in digestion.

This fruit is also good for any hardening of body tissue, such as hardening of the liver and the arteries. It can also help prevent stone formations.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 133

Protein: 1.5 g

Fat: 0.6 g

Carbohydrates: 30.3 g

Calcium: 51 mg

Phosphorus: 54 mg

Iron: 0.9 mg

Vitamin A: 4770 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.11 mg

Riboflavin: 0.06 mg

Niacin: 0.06 mg

Ascorbic acid: 12 mg

Turnip and Turnip Greens

February 1, 2016

The turnip, which belongs to the mustard family, is reported to have come from Russia, Siberia, and the Scandinavian peninsula. It has been used since ancient times. Columella wrote in A.D. 42 that two varieties of turnips were grown in what is now known as France. Pliny refers to five varieties, and stated that the broad-bot­tom flat turnip and the globular turnip were the most popular.

Back in the sixteenth century, giant turnips created comment. In 1558, Matthiolus spoke of having heard of long purple turnips weighing thirty pounds: however, this may be considered small compared with the turnip weighing one hundred pounds grown in California in 1850.

Cartier sowed turnip seed in Canada as early as 1540, and they were cultivated in Virginia in 1609, and in Massachusetts as early as 1629. In 1707 they were plentiful around Philadelphia, and their use was recorded in South Carolina as early as 1779.

Turnips may be served steamed, with drawn butter or cream sauce. They are also excellent raw and shredded in salads.

Turnip greens are excellent cooked the same way spinach is usually cooked. The greens should be cooked in a covered pan until tender, using only the water that clings to the leaves.

Regardless of variety, turnips have much the same flavor if grown under the same conditions. They may be distinguished by shape, as round, flat, or top-shaped, and also by color of the flesh­ white or yellow-by the color of the skin, and by the leaves. Vari­eties like Seven Top and Shogoin are grown almost exclusively for the leaves.

The most popular variety is the Purple Top White Globe. This variety has a large globe-shaped root, with an irregularly marked purple cap, and its flesh is white, sweet, crisp, and tender. The leaves are dark green, large, and erect.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Turnips are very high in sulfur and are sometimes gas forming. The root vegetable can be considered a carbohydrate vegetable. If eaten raw, they have a high content of vitamin C. Turnip juice is espe­cially good for any mucous and catarrhal conditions. They have been used successfully in all bronchial disturbances, even asthma. Turnip packs over the chest are good for relieving bronchial disor­ders and packs over the throat are good for sore throats. When fresh and young, turnips can be used raw in salads. They leave an alkaline ash, and have a low calorie content and low carbohydrate content. They can be used in most diets.

Turnip leaves are considered good for controlling calcium in the body, as are all other greens. They have been used successfully in the South to combat pellagra, which is a disease caused by lack of calcium in the body.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND (root vegetable)

Calories: 117

Protein: 3.9 g

Fat: .8 g

Carbohydrates: 25.7 g

Calcium: 152 mg

Phosphorus: 117 mg

Iron: 2 mg

Vitamin A: trace I.U.

Thiamine: .16 mg

Riboflavin: .26 mg

Niacin: 2.2 mg

Ascorbic Acid: 140 mg

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND (turnip greens only)

Calories: 140

Protein: 11 g

Fat: .1.5 g

Carbohydrates: 20.6 g

Calcium: 987 mg

Phosphorus: 190 mg

Iron: 9.1 mg

Vitamin A: 34,470 I.U.

Thiamine: .37 mg

Riboflavin: 2.15 mg

Niacin: 2.9 mg

Ascorbic Acid: 519 mg

Beet

January 25, 2016

The beet has been cultivated for its roots and leaves since the third or fourth century B.C. It spread from the area of the Mediterranean to the Near East. In ancient times it was used only for medicinal purposes-the edible beet root we know today was unknown before the Christian era. In the fourth century beet recipes were recorded in England, and in 1810 the beet began to be cultivated for sugar in France and Germany. It is not known when the beet was first introduced to the United States, but it is known that there was one variety grown here in 1806. Sugar beets are usually yellowish-white, and are cultivated extensively in this country. The garden beet ranges from dark purplish-red to a bright vermillion to white, but the most popular commercial variety is red.

Beets are available in the markets all year. Their peak season is May through October. They are primarily grown in the southern United States, the Northeast, and the vest coast states. When selecting beets, do not just look at the condition of the leaves. Beets that remain to the ground too long become tough and woody, and can be identified by a short neck, deep scars, or several circles of leaf scars around the top of the beet.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Beets are wonderful for adding needed minerals. They can be used to eliminate pocket add material in the bowel and for ailments in the gall bladder and liver. Their vitamin A content is quite high, so they are not only good for the eliminative system, but also benefit the digestive and lymphatic systems.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND (without tops)

Calories: 147

Protein: 5.4 g

Fat: 0.3 g

Carbohydrates: 32.6 g

Calcium: 51 mg

Phosphorus: 92 mg

Iron: 3.4 mg

Vitamin A: 22,700 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.07 mg

Riboflavin: 0.16 mg

Niacin: 1.5 mg

Ascorbic acid: 80 mg

Kale

January 18, 2016

Kale, and collard, its close relative, are the oldest known members of the cabbage family. Wild cabbage, which strongly resembles kale in its appearance, is still found growing along the European coasts and in North Africa. Kale is native either to the eastern Mediterranean region or to Asia Minor. It is known that man has been eating this vegetable for more than 4000 years.

The word “kale” was first used in Scotland, and is derived from the Greek and Latin words “coles” and “caulis”. These words refer to the whole group of cabbage-like plants. In America, kale was first mentioned in 1669, although it was probably introduced to this continent at an earlier date.

The sulfur compounds that are found in the cabbage family are, of course, also found in kale. These compounds break up easily, and decomposition occurs when kale is cooked too long or at too low a temperature. Overcooking also destroys the flavor.

Kale is on the market all year, but is most abundant through the late fall and winter. The peak months are December through February. Kale comes principally from Virginia, New York, New Jersey, and the Middle Atlantic states.

There are now many varieties of kale, but the crinkly-leaved and the smooth-leaved are the two most popular commercial types. The smooth type is usually referred to as spring kale, and the curly as green Scotch kale, or Siberian blue kale. Scotch kale are usually crinkled and curled, have a finely divided leaf, and are bright green to yellowish-green in color. The leaves of the Siberian kale are flattened and smooth in the center, with curled and ruffled edges, and are of a deep, bluish-green color. Wilted and yellowed leaves should be avoided.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Kale is very high in calcium, vitamin A, and iron. It is good for building up the calcium content of the body, and builds strong teeth. Kale is beneficial to the digestive and nervous systems.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 117

Protein: 11.3 g

Fat: 1.7 g

Carbohydrates: 21.0 g

Calcium: 655 mg

Phosphorus: 180 mg

Iron: 6.4 mg

Vitamin A: 21,950 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.3 mg

Riboflavin: 0.76 mg

Niacin: 5.8 mg

Ascorbic acid: 335 mg

Orange

January 11, 2016

The orange is one of the oldest fruits known in the history of cultivation. As early as 500 B.C. the fruit of the citrus tree was mentioned in a collection of old documents believed to be edited by Confucius himself. In the year A.D. 1178, Han Yen-Chi, a Chinese horticulturist, wrote on the subject of oranges, and the seedless orange was mentioned in these writings. This author speaks of twenty-seven varieties of “very valuable and precious” oranges.

Oranges were originally brought from China to India, and gradually spread over the entire world where the climate was mild enough for their cultivation. The sour orange, or “Naranga” as it was referred to in Sanskrit about A.D. 100. came into cultivation in the basin of the Mediterranean long before the fall of the Roman Empire. The sweet variety, or “Airavata,” does not appear to have been cultivated until early in the fifteenth century, and then became so popular that it was soon being cultivated extensively throughout Southern Europe. The Moors brought the Seville orange from the East.

Wild oranges were found in the West Indies and Brazil as early as1600. The early Spanish explorers are believed to have brought oranges with them to this country in the time of Ponce de Leon’s quest for the Fountain of Youth. In California, the orange was cultivated at the San Diego Mission in 1769 and, in the year 1804, 400 seedlings grew into a grove of considerable size around the San Gabriel Mission. The popularity of the orange, particularly in the favorable climate of California, grew rapidly, until it soon developed into a leading industry. The orange became known as “California’s liquid sunshine.”

The original orange was very small, bitter, and full of seeds, but through constant efforts in cross-fertilization and selection, many varieties of this delicious fruit are now cultivated with a tremendous improvement in the quality of the fruit. The sweet oranges are, by far, the most popular, while the sour orange is used more for its propagating stock than for its fruit. Unless killed by frost or fire, the orange tree lives to an old age and continues to bear fruit throughout its lifetime.

More than two hundred varieties of oranges are grown in the United States. In 1919 the United States produced only about 25 percent of the world’s total output of oranges, but now it produces about half. Oranges comprise about 60 percent of the citrus fruit grown in the United States.

Oranges are available every day of the year, but are most abundant in the United States from January to May. California, Florida, and Texas are the orange-producing states, and each of these states ships great quantities. California’s vast Valencia orange acreage is now more extensive than the Navel orange plantings. This state now has about 150.000 acres of Valendas, and about 100,000 acres of Navels, with an additional few thousand acres of miscdanmus orange varieties. The largest proportion of the California orange crop-about 85 to 90 percent, comes from southern California.

Choose the first oranges of the season, for they are the richest in mineral values. Tree-ripened oranges have, by far, the greatest mineral content. The best quality orange is firm and heavy, has a fine-textured skin varying in texture according to variety, and is well-colored. The light orange lacks juice. Avoid the soft, flabby, or shriveled orange and those oranges with any soft or moldy areas upon them. Do not eat unripe oranges because they can cause stomach upsets. particularly in small children. Once the skin is cut or broken, the fruit should be eaten immediately as the vitamin C is banned by exposure to the air. If orange juice is kept for a period of time, store in the refrigerator in an airtight container.

The orange is classified as a subtropical fruit and has a citric add content of 1.5 percent. This alkaline-reacting fruit is best eaten with other tropical or subtropical fruits, with add fruits, or with nuts or milk. It is best to avoid eating this fruit with starches or sweets, or with dried fruits.

Use oranges as a dessert fruit, with yogurt, or in combination salads. Make a cup of a segmented orange the thick-skinned seedless orange is best for segmenting-and nil with cottage cheese. Make liquefied drinks, mixing orange juice with other subtropical or tropical fruits such as cactus fruits, loquats, mango, papaya, persimmon, pineapple, pomegranate, apples, and citrus fruits. Many have advised eating oranges or drinking orange juice with meals, early in the morning on an empty stomach, or directly following a meal if the body is in a highly add condition.

The orange is one of the best sources of water-soluble vitamin C. The absence or insufficiency of this causes scurvy. As vitamin C is the least stable of all the vitamins, storage of orange juice at low temperature destroys the vitamin to some extent, and sterilization may destroy it completely. Generally, I think it is best to use the citric add fruits in sections rather than in juices. When the orange is eaten in sections, the mineral material found in the pulp will help to neutralize the citric add effect as it goes into the body.

Citrus fruits are high in sodium, but only when completely matured in the sunshine. The fruit acids from green or immature fruit cause many adverse body reactions.

If the section and bulk of the orange is fresh and sweet, it is an excellent food for children as a supplement for those who must drink cow’s milk, or any milk, because it seems to help in the retention of calcium in the body. Ripe oranges contain as much as 10 percent fruit sugar, which can be immediately assimilated by the body.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Oranges are the most popular source of Vitamin C. They are excellent for treating over acid body conditions, constipation, or a particularly sluggish intestinal tract. In cases of acidosis, drink orange juice, or eat oranges after meals. If the intestinal tract is not functioning properly, drink a large glass of orange juice upon wakening in the morning, or about one-half hour before breakfast. In the cases of stomach acid deficiency, start the meal with a peeled orange or a glass of orange juice.

Those who suffer from tooth decay or poor gums are probably lacking in vitamin C and should drink large amounts of orange juice for a period of a few weeks. People with gastric and duodenal ulcers are deficient in ascorbic acid, and their diet should be supplemented with a high potency vitamin C such as that found in fresh oranges and orange juice.

Orange are very good for elimination. They stir up the acid accumulations and catarrhal settlements in the body very quickly. However, sometimes this is not a good idea if the channels of elimination, such as skin and kidneys, are not able to take out these acids fast enough.

Eat the whole orange, excluding the very outer skin, to get all the good from the fruit. The luscious orange is rated tops in importance in the contribution to health.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 164

Protein: 2.9g

Fat: 0.7 g

Carbohydrates: 36.6 g

Calcium: 108 mg

Phosphorus: 75 mg

Iron: 1.3 mg

Vitamin A: 9101 I.U.

Thiamine: .25mg

Riboflavin: .08 mg

Niacin: .08 mg

Ascorbic acid: 162 mg

Grapefruit

January 4, 2016

The name grapefruit originated in the West Indies in the eighteenth century, perhaps because of the fact that its fruit grows in clusters of three to twelve or more, similar to grape clusters. This citrus fruit was cultivated more than 4000 years ago in India and Malaysia, but it was not until the sixteenth century that it was introduced to this country by the Spaniards. For many years it was not popular because of its slightly bitter taste. From 1880 to 1885 a group of Florida grapefruit growers shipped crates of the fruit to Philadelphia and New York and encouraged people to try it. In about 1915 the commercial sale of grapefruit expanded, until its production spread into three other states—California, Arizona, and Texas.

The United States furnishes about 97 percent of the world’s supply of grapefruit, and Florida and Texas together produce about 90 percent of the grapefruit grown in the United States. The Marsh seedless grapefruit is the most popular variety today.

The grapefruit tree is about the size of the orange tree and reaches a height of twenty to forty feet. Like the orange, it blooms in the spring. In California and Arizona, the fruit ripens throughout the year. Although grapefruit is available all year, it is most abundant from January through May. Grapefruit is also imported by the United States from Cuba in the late summer and early fall.

Grapefruit of good quality is firm, but springy to the touch, well-shaped, and heavy for its size—the heavier the fruit, the better. Do not choose soft, wilted, or flabby fruit. The heavy fruits are usually thin-skinned and contain more juice than those with coarse skin or those puffy or spongy to the touch.

Grapefruit often has a reddish brown color over the normal yellow, which is called “russeting.” Russeting does not affect the flavor in any way. Most of the defects found on the skin of the grapefruit are minor and do not affect the eating quality of the fruit. However, fruit with decayed spots is not desirable, as the decay usually affects the flavor. Decay may appear as a soft, discolored area on the stem end of the fruit or it may appear as a colorless area that breaks easily when pressure is applied. If the skin of the fruit appears rough, ridged, or wrinkled, it is likely to be thick-skinned.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Grapefruit is a subtropical acid fruit, and is highly alkaline in reaction. It is best eaten with other acid fruits, nuts, or milk. Eat grapefruit immediately after cutting into the rind to benefit from all of its goodness. For best digestion and assimilation, avoid eating grapefruit with sweeter fruits or with starches. The grapefruit is less acidulous than the lemon and is a good substitute when oranges or their juice cannot be tolerated, or when the alkaline reserves in the body need to be augmented.

Grapefruit is rich in vitamins C and B1, and is a good source of vitamin B12. It is low in calories, which makes it a good drink on a reducing diet. There is less sugar in grapefruit than in oranges. Eat the sun-ripened fruit when possible, as this fruit needs no sweetening, and is better for you. If sweetening is necessary, use a little honey.

Grapefruit is very rich in citric acids and their salts, and in potassium and calcium. Use it often in combination with meats, because grapefruit juice is excellent as an aid in the digestion of meats. However, avoid the overuse of all citric acid fruits as they are a powerful dissolver of the catarrhal accumulations in the body and the elimination of too much toxic material all at once may cause boils, irritated nerves, diarrhea, and other problems. People are often so eager to get vitamins and minerals into the body that they sometimes do not consider that the powerful action of citric acid causes irritation and discomfort.

When taken right before bedtime, grapefruit is conducive to a sound sleep. A drink of grapefruit juice first thing in the morning helps prevent constipation. It is also an excellent aid in reducing fevers from colds and the flu, and seldom causes allergic reactions.

Grapefruit rind contains the very valuable vitamin P, which is an important vitamin for healthy gums and teeth. This vitamin may be extracted by simmering the rind in water for about twenty minutes. Strain, and drink.

The sour taste of grapefruit increases the flow of digestive juices in the stomach. Grapefruit served at the beginning of a meal stimulates the appetite and helps in digestion.

This fruit is also good for any hardening of body tissue, such as hardening of the liver and the arteries. It can also help prevent stone formations.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 133

Protein: 1.5 g

Fat: 0.6 g

Carbohydrates: 30.3 g

Calcium: 51 mg

Phosphorus: 54 mg

Iron: 0.9 mg

Vitamin A: 4770 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.11 mg

Riboflavin: 0.06 mg

Niacin: 0.06 mg

Ascorbic acid: 12 mg

Mushroom

December 28, 2015

The Pharaohs of Egypt monopolized mushrooms for their own use. They thought they were too delicate to be eaten by common people. The Egyptian potentates did not understand the sudden, overnight appearance of mushrooms, and consequently believed they grew magically. By the first century B.C., the mushroom had gained such a fine reputation among epicures of the Roman Empire that the poet Horace celebrated its goodness in verse. The Romans called mushrooms “food of the gods”, and served them on festive occasions. They were thought to provide warriors with unusual strength.

Up to the seventeenth century, only the wild types of mushrooms found growing in meadows and pastures were known. During the reign of Louis XIV, mushroom · growing was introduced in France. Parisian market gardeners experimented to learn the secrets of successful mushroom culture. By 1749 mushroom beds were cultivated in caves and cellars, and the results were much better’ than ·when they were grown outdoors. The British were raising mushrooms in hothouses sometime before 1700.

The commercial production of mushrooms in the United States started in the late 1890s when a group of florists in Chester County, Pennsylvania started growing them under the benches in their greenhouses. The greatest event in the history of mushroom culture in the United States occurred in 1926 when a farmer found a clump of pure white mushrooms in a bed of uniformly cream-colored fungi. Most of the mushrooms grown today are descendants of this white clump.

Mushrooms are now cultivated in specially constructed buildings that are windowless and in which temperature and humidity are controlled. Mushroom spawn is cultivated by laboratory scientists who sell it to the growers for inoculation of the mushroom beds. Such precise methods are necessary to provide pure spawn of known characteristics.

The introduction of mushrooms into gravies, sauces, soups, and other dishes adds zest and flavor, but they also are a fine food when served as a vegetable . Mushrooms require very little preparation. Wash, cut off the bottom portion of the stem if it has dried, and either slice the caps and stems or leave whole, depending on the method of cooking. Butter a deep pan, cut up the mushrooms so they fill the pan to a depth of about two inches, and simmer over a low· heat until the mushrooms are covered with their own juice. This may take more than ten minutes. Then, cook more briskly for about five minutes, until tender. Overcooking toughens mushrooms.

Green plants can get their food by manufacturing it in their leaves from air, water, sunshine , and soil nutrients, but mushrooms cannot do this. They have no leaves, so they must depend on green plants to make their food for them, and they cannot use it unless it is in the process of decay. Mushrooms propagate from spores, a brownish powder shed from the rounded head which, when ripe, opens like a parasol. However, cultivated mushrooms are not reproduced from spores, but from fine strands of mycelium, which are root like growths that spread through organic material. Most wild mushrooms are not poisonous, but unless you know the difference, you should leave them alone. It is not possible to tell by taste which mushrooms are dangerous. Some very unpalatable mushrooms are harmless, while others that have an agreeable taste are poisonous.

Scientists today say that darkness is not the primary requisite for growing mushrooms. They say that, for healthy growth, all mushrooms need constant temperature and protection against drafts.

The term mushroom refers to a large number of different species and varieties of fleshy fungi. Only one species is usually cultivated and that is Agaricus Campestris, which has a straight stem, a smooth cap of a shade varying from white or ivory to brown, and gills of different shades of pink. Most of the cultivated mushrooms grown in the United States are of the white variety variously known as Snow White, White King, White Queen, etc. This variety is very prolific and is preferred by nearly all markets because of its attractive, clean, white appearance.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Prior to the mid-1940s, all you needed to do to work up a hot argument among nutritionists was to say the word “mushrooms.” Scientists’ assertions about the food value of mushrooms ranged from calling them’ ‘vegetable beefsteak” full of proteins, to declaring that they had no protein and very little else. This confusion arose partly from the fact that mushrooms of many species were investigated and the results reported under a common head. A June 1946 report by William B. Eccelen, Jr. and Carl R. Fellers of the Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station stated that cultivated mushrooms of the Agaricus Campestris type compare favorably in food value to many fresh fruits and vegetables.

Mushrooms are among the few rich organic sources of germanium, which increases oxygen efficiency of the body, counteracts the effects of pollutants, and increases resistance to disease. Because mushrooms are extremely low in calories, they are useful in reducing diets. They are also a good source of vitamin B.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 123

Protein: 11.9 g

Fat: 1.2 g

Carbohydrates: 19.4 g

Calcium: 26 mg

Phosphorus: 510 mg

Iron: 3.5 mg

Vitamin A: trace

Thiamine: 0.41 mg

Riboflavin: 2.02 mg

Niacin: 18.6 mg

Ascorbic acid: 14 mg

Quince

December 21, 2015

It is believed that the quince long preceded the apple, and that many ancient references to apples were, in fact, references to quince, including the forbidden fruit in the Garden of Eden. Greek mythology associates the quince with Aphrodite, the goddess of love, and many believe that the golden apple given to her by Paris was a quince.

Ancient Greeks associated the quince with fertility, and it played an important role in wedding celebrations where it was offered as a gift, used to sweeten the bride’s breath before entering the bridal chamber, and shared by bride and groom. These associations have resulted in the quince becoming known as the “fruit of love, marriage, and fertility.”

In Kydonia on the island of Crete, which is the origin of the botanical name, Cydonia oblonga, the ordinary quince of old was transformed into the fruit as we know it today in the Mediterranean area. The shape is somewhere between an apple and pear, it has a rich yellow exterior, and a strong pleasant fragrance.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The Quince is very low in Saturated Fat, Cholesterol and Sodium. It is also a good source of Dietary Fiber and Copper, and a very good source of Vitamin C.

The quince is hard, acidic, and astringent before cooking, but once cooked and sweetened, it turns red, tastes divine, and takes on the color and flavor of love, in addition to the name.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 52

Protein: .04 g

Fat: .1 g

Carbohydrates: 14.1 g

Calcium: 10.1 mg

Phosphorus: 15.6 mg

Iron: 0.6 mg

Vitamin A: 36.8 I.U.

Thiamine: 0 mg

Riboflavin: .08 mg

Niacin: .2 mg

Papaya

December 14, 2015

The papaya is native to Central America . From there it has been introduced to areas favorable to its growth in Asia, Africa and Polynesia. It is second only to the banana in importance in South and Central America and Hawaii. The papaya tree is actually a large shrub not unlike a palm in appearance, and bears fruit when it is only a few months old. The fruit resembles a melon with smooth skin, and is yellowish-orange in color when ripe. The flesh is a darker orange and is from one to two inches thick. In the center of the fruit are a large number of small, round, black seeds.

The papaya has been planted in Florida and Texas, where it has met with considerable success. In California its cultivation is confined to the most protected areas in the southern part of the state.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The papaya is rich in vitamins. It is especially high in Vitamins A, C , and E, and is rich in calcium, phosphorus, and iron.

The papaya is high in digestive properties and has a direct tonic effect on the stomach. It is used in the treatment of stomach ulcers and fevers and has a high mucus solvent action. The papaya retains its potency in high temperatures.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 119

Protein: 1.8 g

Fat: 0.3 g

Carbohydrates: 30.4 g

Calcium: 61 mg

Phosphorus: 49 mg

Iron: 0.9 mg

Vitamin A: 5,320 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.12 mg

Riboflavin: 0.13 mg

Niacin: 0.9 mg

Ascorbic acid: 170 mg

Plums and Fresh Prunes

December 7, 2015

The early colonists found plums growing wild along the entire Eastern coast. They were one of many fruits eaten by the Indians before the coming of the white man, and reports of early explorers mention the finding of plums growing in abundance. Today however native plums are not important commercially. The European type of plums, Prunas Domestica, has replaced the native plum. Plum pits from Europe probably were brought to America by the first colonists, for it is reported that plums were planted by the Pilgrims in Massachusetts, and the French brought them to Canada.

Although plums came to America by way of Europe, they are believed to have originated in Western Asia in the region south of the Caucasus Mountains to the Caspian Sea. According to the earliest writings in which the European plum is mentioned,the species dates back at least 2000 years.

Another species, Prunus Institia, known to us as the Damson plum, also came to America by way of Europe. This plum was named for Damascus and apparently antedates the European type, although Damson pits have been found in the lake dwellings of Switzerland and in other ancient ruins.

Another important species, the Japanese plum, was domesticated in Japan, but originated in China. It was introduced in the United States about 1870. This type is grown extensively in California.

Plums have been grown in some of the Spanish mission gardens of California at least as early as 1792, and the first prune plums grown in California were produced in Santa Clara Mission. However, the present California prune industry is not based on these but the French prune, Petite Prune d’Agen, scions of which were brought to California from France in 1856 by Pierre Pellier. French-type prunes grown in California orchards were shipped in to San Francisco markets in 1859.

Botanically, plums and prunes of the European or Domestica type belong to the same species. The interchangeable use of the terms “plum and prune” dates back for several centuries. Plum is Anglo-Saxon, and prune is French. It is uncertain just when the word prune was first used to designate a dried plum or a plum suitable for drying. The prune is a variety of plum that can be dried without fermenting when the pit is left in. Fresh prunes, as compared with plums, have firmer flesh, higher sugar content, and frequently higher acid content. A ripe, fresh prune can be separated from the pit like a freestone peach, but a plum cannot be opened this way.

Of all the stone fruits, plums have the largest number and greatest diversity of kinds and species. H.F. Tysser, editor of Fruit Manual, published in London, says there are over 2000 varieties. Samual Fraser, in his book America Fruits, speaks of a list of about 1500 varieties of Old World plums alone, and says there probably are just as many varieties of plums native to this continent. In addition, there is a long list of Japanese and Chinese plums.

Almost all of the plums shipped in the United States are grown in California. There are two types of California plums, Japanese and European. The former marketed early in the season and the latter in mid season or later. The Japanese varieties are characterized by their large size, heart-shape, and bright red or yellow color. Japanese varieties are never blue.

Plums and prunes of good quality are plump, clean, of fresh appearance, full colored for the particular variety, and soft enough to yield to slight pressure. Unless one is well acquainted with varieties, color alone cannot be replied upon an indication of ripeness. Some varieties are fully ripe when the color is yellowish-green, others when the color is red, and others when purplish-blue or black. Softening at the tip is a good indication of maturity. Immature fruit is hard. It may be shriveled and is generally of poor color or flavor. Over mature fruit is generally soft, easily bruised, and is often leaky.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Fresh plums are more acid to the body than fresh prunes. When too many plums are eaten, an over acid condition results. When prunes are dried, however they are wonderful for the nerves because the contain a phosphorus content of nearly 5 percent.

Prunes have a laxative effect. The dried prune is better to eat than the fresh plum or prune. The salts contained in the dried prune are valuable as food for the blood, brain and nerves. The French prunes are considered the best for their value to the nervous system.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 218

Protein: 3 g

Fat: 0.9 g

Carbohydrates: 55.6 g

Calcium: 73 mg

Phosphorus: 86 mg

Iron: 2.2 mg

Vitamin A: 1200 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.28 mg

Riboflavin: 0.18 mg

Niacin: 2.1 mg

Ascorbic acid: 20 mg

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