Foundation for Advancement in Cancer Therapy

Non-Traditional Approaches to
the Theories, Treatments and Prevention of Cancer

Apricot

May 14, 2018

The apricot is said to have originated in China. It spread from there to other parts of Asia, then to Greece and Italy. As early as 1562 there is mention of the apricot in England in Turner’s Herbal.

It is recorded that the apricot grew in abundance in Virginia in the year 1720. In 1792 Vancouver, the explorer, found a fine fruit orchard that included apricots at Santa Clara, California. The fruit was probably brought to California by the Mission Fathers in the eighteenth century.

The apricot is a summer fruit, and is grown in the Western United States. California produces 97 percent of the commercial apricot crop. Only about 21 percent of the apricots produced commercially are sold fresh; the remainder are canned, dried, or frozen.

Tree-ripened apricots have the best flavor, but tree-ripened fruit is rarely available in stores, even those close to the orchard. The next best thing to a well-matured apricot is one that is orange-yellow in color, and plump and juicy. Immature apricots never attain the right sweetness or flavor. There are far too many immature apricots on the market. They are greenish-yellow, the flesh is firm, and they taste sour. Avoid green and shriveled apricots.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE IN APRICOTS

Apricots may be eaten raw in a soft diet. Ripe apricots are especially good for very young children and for older people. This fruit is quite laxative, and rates high in alkalinity. Apricots also contain cobalt, which is necessary in the treatment of anemic conditions.

Apricots may be pureed for children who are just beginning to eat solid foods. Apricot whip for dessert is wonderful, and apricots and cream may be used in as many ways as possible. They make good afternoon and evening snacks.

Dried apricots have six times as much sugar content as the fresh fruit. Therefore, persons with diabetic conditions must be careful not to eat too much dried apricot. Because of its sugar content, however, it is good when we need an energy boost.

Dried fruits should be put in cold water and brought to a boil the night before, or permitted to soak all night, before eating. Bringing the water to a boil kills any germ life that may be on the fruit. Sweeten only with honey, maple syrup, or natural sugars.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND OF APRICOTS

Calories: 241

Protein: 4.3 g

Fat: 0.4 g

Carbohydrates: 55.1 g

Calcium: 68 mg

Phosphorus: 98 mg

Iron: 2.1 mg

Vitamin A: 11,930 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.13 mg

Riboflavin: 0.17 mg

Niacin: 3.2 mg

Ascorbic acid: 42 mg

Strawberry

March 19, 2018

The strawberry is native to North and South America. An early Chilean variety was taken to Peru in 1557 and this same variety is still growing in Chile, Peru, Ecuador, and other South American countries. The modem strawberry was developed in Europe.

Most strawberry varieties that grow commercially today have originated within the last fifty-five years. Territories for their growth have expanded to almost every state in the Union, including the interior of Alaska.

How the name “strawberry” first came into use is often disputed. One researcher tells us that it was because straw was used between the rows to keep the berries clean and to protect the berries in the winter. Another explanation is that in Europe ripe berries were threaded on straws to be carried to market.

In 1945, about fifteen varieties constituted 94 percent of the total commercial market. The leading variety in the United States is the Blakemore, which originated in Maryland in 1923. Its firmness, earliness, and the fact that it holds its color when stored make it a leading market berry, The Klondike is grown extensively in Southern California and is one of the best shipping varieties. The Klonmore is native to Louisiana. Because it appears earlier, it is more resistant to disease and is fast replacing the Klondike in that state. Other popular varieties are the Howard 17 and the Marshall, which both originated in Massachusetts.

Strawberries are at their peak of abundance in April, May, and June; January, February, March, and July are moderate months.

Quality strawberries are fresh, clean, and bright in appearance. They have a solid red color, and the caps are attached. Strawberries without caps may have been roughly handled or are over-mature.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Strawberries are a good source of vitamin C, and contain a large amount of fruit sugar. They are an excellent spring tonic, and are delicious when juiced.

They can be considered an eliminative food, and are good for the intestinal tract. Strawberries have an alkaline reaction in the body. Because of their high sodium content, they can be considered “a food of youth.” They also have a good amount of potassium.

Many people complain about getting hives from strawberries. This is usually because they are not ripened on the vine. If you are allergic to strawberries, try this: run hot water over them, then Immediately follow this by running cold water over them. This takes the fuzz off the outside of the berries, which is believed to be the cause of the hives.

The seeds of the strawberry can be irritating in cases of inflammation of the bowel or colitis.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 179

Protein: 3.5 g

Fat: 2.6 g

Carbohydrates: 35.3 g

Calcium: 122 mg

Phosphorus: 118 mg

Iron: 3.5 mg

Vitamin A: 250 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.13 mg

Riboflavin: 0.29 mg

Niacin: 1.3mg

Ascorbic acid: 261 mg

Banana

March 12, 2018

Bananas were cultivated in India 4,000 years ago. In 1482, the Portuguese found the banana on the Guinea coast and carried it with them to the Canary Islands. Spanish priests are credited with having introduced this fruit to tropical America when they arrived as missionaries in the sixteenth century. Now, the banana can be found in all tropical countries.

The first known species of banana is the plantain. or cooking banana. The plantain has a salmon-colored and gummy texture, and a slightly acid taste. This fruit has been a substitute for bread or potatoes in many countries, and is slowly being introduced to the United States.

Bananas are usually harvested green, shipped green, and ripened by wholesale fruit jobbers in air-conditioned ripening rooms. The Gros Michel variety is the most popular of the many varieties. It produces the largest and most compact bunch, which makes it easier to ship. The thick skin of the banana protects the soft fruit.

Other popular varieties of banana are the Claret, or red banana, which has a gummy flesh; the Lady Finger, which is the smallest variety, but has a delicate, sweet flavor; and the Apple, which has an acid flavor and tastes somewhat like a mellow apple.

In the tropics, bananas are often cooked and served with beans, rice, or tortillas. In the Latin American countries, the ripe banana is sometimes dried in the sun in much the same manner as figs and raisins. They arc often sliced when ripe and left in the sun until they are covered with a coating of white, sugary powder that arises from their own juices.

The banana has no particular growing season. A ripe banana is firm, with a plump texture, strong peel, and no trace of green on the skin. A skin that is flecked with brown means the fruit is good.

Fully ripe bananas are composed of 76 percent water, 20 percent sugar, and 12 percent starch.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The sugars in the banana are readily assimilated, and they contain many vitamins and minerals, and a great deal of fiber. They are excellent for young children and infants and are good in reducing diets because they satisfy the appetite and are low in fat.

Because they are so soft, they are good for persons who have intestinal disturbances, and for convalescents. Bananas feed the natural acidophilus bacteria of the bowel, and their high potassium content benefits the muscular system.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND (edible portion)

Calories: 299

Protein: 3.6 g

Fat: 0.6 g

Carbohydrates: 69.9 g

Calcium: 24 mg

Phosphorus: 85 mg

Iron: 1.8 mg

Vitamin A: 1,300 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.27 mg

Riboflavin: 0.19 mg

Niacin: 1.7 mg

Ascorbic acid: 29 mg

Grapefruit

February 26, 2018

The name grapefruit originated in the West Indies in the eighteenth century, perhaps because of the fact that its fruit grows in clusters of three to twelve or more, similar to grape clusters. This citrus fruit was cultivated more than 4000 years ago in India and Malaysia, but it was not until the sixteenth century that it was introduced to this country by the Spaniards. For many years it was not popular because of its slightly bitter taste. From 1880 to 1885 a group of Florida grapefruit growers shipped crates of the fruit to Philadelphia and New York and encouraged people to try it. In about 1915 the commercial sale of grapefruit expanded, until its production spread into three other states—California, Arizona, and Texas.

The United States furnishes about 97 percent of the world’s supply of grapefruit, and Florida and Texas together produce about 90 percent of the grapefruit grown in the United States. The Marsh seedless grapefruit is the most popular variety today.

The grapefruit tree is about the size of the orange tree and reaches a height of twenty to forty feet. Like the orange, it blooms in the spring. In California and Arizona, the fruit ripens throughout the year. Although grapefruit is available all year, it is most abundant from January through May. Grapefruit is also imported by the United States from Cuba in the late summer and early fall.

Grapefruit of good quality is firm, but springy to the touch, well-shaped, and heavy for its size—the heavier the fruit, the better. Do not choose soft, wilted, or flabby fruit. The heavy fruits are usually thin-skinned and contain more juice than those with coarse skin or those puffy or spongy to the touch.

Grapefruit often has a reddish brown color over the normal yellow, which is called “russeting.” Russeting does not affect the flavor in any way. Most of the defects found on the skin of the grapefruit are minor and do not affect the eating quality of the fruit. However, fruit with decayed spots is not desirable, as the decay usually affects the flavor. Decay may appear as a soft, discolored area on the stem end of the fruit or it may appear as a colorless area that breaks easily when pressure is applied. If the skin of the fruit appears rough, ridged, or wrinkled, it is likely to be thick-skinned.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Grapefruit is a subtropical acid fruit, and is highly alkaline in reaction. It is best eaten with other acid fruits, nuts, or milk. Eat grapefruit immediately after cutting into the rind to benefit from all of its goodness. For best digestion and assimilation, avoid eating grapefruit with sweeter fruits or with starches. The grapefruit is less acidulous than the lemon and is a good substitute when oranges or their juice cannot be tolerated, or when the alkaline reserves in the body need to be augmented.

Grapefruit is rich in vitamins C and B1, and is a good source of vitamin B12. It is low in calories, which makes it a good drink on a reducing diet. There is less sugar in grapefruit than in oranges. Eat the sun-ripened fruit when possible, as this fruit needs no sweetening, and is better for you. If sweetening is necessary, use a little honey.

Grapefruit is very rich in citric acids and their salts, and in potassium and calcium. Use it often in combination with meats, because grapefruit juice is excellent as an aid in the digestion of meats. However, avoid the overuse of all citric acid fruits as they are a powerful dissolver of the catarrhal accumulations in the body and the elimination of too much toxic material all at once may cause boils, irritated nerves, diarrhea, and other problems. People are often so eager to get vitamins and minerals into the body that they sometimes do not consider that the powerful action of citric acid causes irritation and discomfort.

When taken right before bedtime, grapefruit is conducive to a sound sleep. A drink of grapefruit juice first thing in the morning helps prevent constipation. It is also an excellent aid in reducing fevers from colds and the flu, and seldom causes allergic reactions.

Grapefruit rind contains the very valuable vitamin P, which is an important vitamin for healthy gums and teeth. This vitamin may be extracted by simmering the rind in water for about twenty minutes. Strain, and drink.

The sour taste of grapefruit increases the flow of digestive juices in the stomach. Grapefruit served at the beginning of a meal stimulates the appetite and helps in digestion.

This fruit is also good for any hardening of body tissue, such as hardening of the liver and the arteries. It can also help prevent stone formations.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 133

Protein: 1.5 g

Fat: 0.6 g

Carbohydrates: 30.3 g

Calcium: 51 mg

Phosphorus: 54 mg

Iron: 0.9 mg

Vitamin A: 4770 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.11 mg

Riboflavin: 0.06 mg

Niacin: 0.06 mg

Ascorbic acid: 12 mg

Lemon

February 12, 2018

Lemons, one of the most highly alkalizing foods, are native to tropical Asia, where cultivation goes back at least 2,500 years. In the twelfth century the Arabs brought lemons to Spain and Africa. It was Christopher Columbus, according to Las Casa, the Spanish historian, who brought seeds of lemons with him from the Canary islands on his second voyage.

In the New World, lemons were introduced by the Spanish adventurers in Haiti, then known as Hispaniola. In the US, Florida was the first lemon-producing area, and this state led in production of lemons until the heavy freeze in 1895 killed the lemon groves. They were never replanted. Now, about 95 percent of the lemons used in the US and Canada are produced in southern California. The other 5 percent are grown in Italy. Italy and California together produce all of the world’s entire supply of lemons.

In 1870, a variety of lemon called the Eureka was started from the Sicilian lemon seed planted in Los Angeles by C.R. Workmen. The Eureka, along with Libson, are the two varieties most commonly grown commercially. The Eureka grows in prolific quantity and is early-bearing, from late spring to summer; the Libson tends to bear only one large crop a year, in either spring or winter. A single lemon tree has been known to produce 3,000 lemons a year. This is because lemon trees bloom and ripen fruit every month of the year. The most fruit is produced between January and May.

The best lemons have skin of an oily, fine texture and are heavy for their size. This type is more apt to be full of juice, with a minimum of seeds and waste fibers. Choose lemons of a deep yellow color for ripeness and juice. They should be firm, but not hard, to the touch. Avoid using lemons that show signs of bruises, as fruits that have been mechanically injured are more subject to mold. Decay on the fruit appears as a mold or a discolored soft area at the stem end. Shriveled or hard-skinned fruits, or those that are soft or spongy to the touch, are not desirable. They may be old, dried out, mechanically injured, or affected by a rot at the center.

Lemon juice makes a good substitute for vinegar, especially in salad dressing, and for flavorings generally. Use a little lemon juice to cut the sweetness in very sweet fruit juices and use lemons in milk or cream, or canned milk, to curdle it, or when you want to make cheese. Use lemon to soften water to make an excellent rinse.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The lemon is rich in alkaline elements. Fresh lemon juice is an outstanding source of vitamin C. However, most of this valuable vitamin is lost if the juice is left exposed to air too long. Lemons are high in potassium, rich in vitamin B, and maybe considered a good source of vitamin G. Both lemons and limes contain 5-6 percent citric acid as compared with oranges, which contain 1 to 2 percent. The lemon is classified as an acid fruit, along with other citrus fruits, cranberries, loganberries, loquats, pineapples, pomegranates, strawberries and tamrinds.

Lemons are ideal for getting rid of toxic materials in the body, but citric acid in lemons can really stir up inactive acids and inactive toxic settlements of the body. The mineral content of the lemon is alkaline-forming in its ash. However, before this alkaline ash goes into the tissues, the citric acid is stirring up many of the acids in the body and it is difficult to get rid of the toxic conditions. We cannot get rid of these toxins because the kidneys, bowels, lungs and skin are not throwing off the body acids fast enough. When these acids are not thrown off quickly enough, they stay in the body becoming so active that academia and other irritating conditions may arise. A person with a highly acid stomach and acid reactions in the body will find that he/she is allergic to many foods. Citric acid would not produce as many irritating effects in persons with this problem if they would first make sure that the eliminative organs were working properly.

Lemons, and all citric acid fruits, are good in cases of putrefaction, especially of the liver. In many cases, they will help stirrup any latent toxic settlements in the body that cannot be eliminated any other way. Lemon drinks help tremendously when we need to remove the impurities and fermentative effects of a bad liver. We have often used citric acid diets with excellent results. But citric acid juices do thin the blood and we must remember that the elimination diet is only a part of what we require for right living.

Lemons are wonderful for throat trouble and catarrh. At the first sign of a cold, drink a glass of warm, unsweetened lemonade, and the cold maybe prevented. Lemons may aid in digestion and can strengthen resistance. A little lemon and the yolk of a raw egg in a glass of orange juice is an excellent mild laxative, as well as a nutritious drink. But, if you are extremely irritable, nervous, sensitive, or highly toxic, use vegetable juices or vegetable broths instead of citric acid fruits.

Lemons are wonderful for fevers, because a feverish body responds to citric acid fruits better than any other food. If we could live correctly, we would find that citrus fruits are one of the most wonderful foods to put in the body. By “living correctly,” I , mean that if the skin is eliminating properly, it would be able to take care of its share of the waste materials that have to be eliminated. When the skin is not eliminating well and acids are stirred up with citrus fruit, the kidneys have to do more work than they are capable of doing. In this case, it is best to use vegetable juices instead of citrus juice to avoid stirring up the toxemia acids in the body. Vegetable juices carry off toxemia acids and act more as a sedative. Before we use lemons, we should make sure that the eliminative organs are working well, because if they are not, the citric acid will cause over activity. This over activity will result in constant catarrhal discharges, as well as many highly acid reactions in the body.

Lemons can be used very effectively in cases of influenza. My late teacher, Dr. V. G. Rocine, gave me this remedy for influenza many years ago: Bake a lemon for twenty minutes in the oven. Cut it in half and squeeze one half of the baked lemon into a glass of hot water. Drink this every half hour, as long as the fever is present.

The lemon seems to have the properties of increasing elimination through the skin, and therefore helps reduce the fever. The lemon also has certain effects on the germ life found in influenza, since it is a wonderful germicide. In fact, there are at least twenty different germs that can be destroyed by the use of lemon itself. To make this influenza remedy more complete, Dr. Rocine used a boneset tea along with it to control the calcium that is necessary whenever there is a fever.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND (including peel)

Calories: 90

Protein: 3.3 g

Fat: 0.9 g

Carbohydrates: 41 g

Calcium: 274 mg

Phosphorus: 67 mg

Iron: 3.1 mg

Vitamin A: 301 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.06 mg

Riboflavin: 0.18 mg

Niacin: 0.9 mg

Ascorbic acid: 346 mg

Papaya

January 22, 2018

The papaya is native to Central America . From there it has been introduced to areas favorable to its growth in Asia, Africa and Polynesia. It is second only to the banana in importance in South and Central America and Hawaii. The papaya tree is actually a large shrub not unlike a palm in appearance, and bears fruit when it is only a few months old. The fruit resembles a melon with smooth skin, and is yellowish-orange in color when ripe. The flesh is a darker orange and is from one to two inches thick. In the center of the fruit are a large number of small, round, black seeds.

The papaya has been planted in Florida and Texas, where it has met with considerable success. In California its cultivation is confined to the most protected areas in the southern part of the state.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

The papaya is rich in vitamins. It is especially high in Vitamins A, C , and E, and is rich in calcium, phosphorus, and iron.

The papaya is high in digestive properties and has a direct tonic effect on the stomach. It is used in the treatment of stomach ulcers and fevers and has a high mucus solvent action. The papaya retains its potency in high temperatures.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 119

Protein: 1.8 g

Fat: 0.3 g

Carbohydrates: 30.4 g

Calcium: 61 mg

Phosphorus: 49 mg

Iron: 0.9 mg

Vitamin A: 5,320 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.12 mg

Riboflavin: 0.13 mg

Niacin: 0.9 mg

Ascorbic acid: 170 mg

Orange

January 16, 2018

The orange is one of the oldest fruits known in the history of cultivation. As early as 500 B.C. the fruit of the citrus tree was mentioned in a collection of old documents believed to be edited by Confucius himself. In the year A.D. 1178, Han Yen-Chi, a Chinese horticulturist, wrote on the subject of oranges, and the seedless orange was mentioned in these writings. This author speaks of twenty-seven varieties of “very valuable and precious” oranges.

Oranges were originally brought from China to India, and gradually spread over the entire world where the climate was mild enough for their cultivation. The sour orange, or “Naranga”, as it was referred to in Sanskrit about A.D. 100. came into cultivation in the basin of the Mediterranean long before the fall of the Roman Empire. The sweet variety, or “Airavata”, does not appear to have been cultivated until early in the fifteenth century, and then became so popular that it was soon being cultivated extensively throughout Southern Europe. The Moors brought the Seville orange from the East.

Wild oranges were found in the West Indies and Brazil as early as1600. The early Spanish explorers are believed to have brought oranges with them to this country in the time of Ponce de Leon’s quest for the Fountain of Youth. In California, the orange was cultivated at the San Diego Mission in 1769 and, in the year 1804, 400 seedlings grew into a grove of considerable size around the San Gabriel Mission. The popularity of the orange, particularly in the favorable climate of California, grew rapidly, until it soon developed into a leading industry. The orange became known as “California’s liquid sunshine.”

The original orange was very small, bitter, and full of seeds, but through constant efforts in cross-fertilization and selection, many varieties of this delicious fruit are now cultivated with a tremendous improvement in the quality of the fruit. The sweet oranges are, by far, the most popular, while the sour orange is used more for its propagating stock than for its fruit. Unless killed by frost or fire, the orange tree lives to an old age and continues to bear fruit throughout its lifetime.

More than two hundred varieties of oranges are grown in the United States. In 1919 the United States produced only about 25 percent of the world’s total output of oranges, but now it produces about half. Oranges comprise about 60 percent of the citrus fruit grown in the United States.

Oranges are available every day of the year, but are most abundant in the United States from January to May. California, Florida, and Texas are the orange-producing states, and each of these states ships great quantities. California’s vast Valencia orange acreage is now more extensive than the Navel orange plantings. This state now has about 150.000 acres of Valendas, and about 100,000 acres of Navels, with an additional few thousand acres of miscdanmus orange varieties. The largest proportion of the California orange crop-about 85 to 90 percent, comes from southern California.

Choose the first oranges of the season, for they are the richest in mineral values. Tree-ripened oranges have, by far, the greatest mineral content. The best quality orange is firm and heavy, has a fine-textured skin varying in texture according to variety, and is well-colored. The light orange lacks juice. Avoid the soft, flabby, or shriveled orange and those oranges with any soft or moldy areas upon them. Do not eat unripe oranges because they can cause stomach upsets. particularly in small children. Once the skin is cut or broken, the fruit should be eaten immediately as the vitamin C is banned by exposure to the air. If orange juice is kept for a period of time, store in the refrigerator in an airtight container.

The orange is classified as a subtropical fruit and has a citric add content of 1.5 percent. This alkaline-reacting fruit is best eaten with other tropical or subtropical fruits, with add fruits, or with nuts or milk. It is best to avoid eating this fruit with starches or sweets, or with dried fruits.

Use oranges as a dessert fruit, with yogurt, or in combination salads. Make a cup of a segmented orange the thick-skinned seedless orange is best for segmenting-and nil with cottage cheese. Make liquefied drinks, mixing orange juice with other subtropical or tropical fruits such as cactus fruits, loquats, mango, papaya, persimmon, pineapple, pomegranate, apples, and citrus fruits. Many have advised eating oranges or drinking orange juice with meals, early in the morning on an empty stomach, or directly following a meal if the body is in a highly add condition.

The orange is one of the best sources of water-soluble vitamin C. The absence or insufficiency of this causes scurvy. As vitamin C is the least stable of all the vitamins, storage of orange juice at low temperature destroys the vitamin to some extent, and sterilization may destroy it completely. Generally, I think it is best to use the citric add fruits in sections rather than in juices. When the orange is eaten in sections, the mineral material found in the pulp will help to neutralize the citric add effect as it goes into the body.

Citrus fruits are high in sodium, but only when completely matured in the sunshine. The fruit acids from green or immature fruit cause many adverse body reactions.

If the section and bulk of the orange is fresh and sweet, it is an excellent food for children as a supplement for those who must drink cow’s milk, or any milk, because it seems to help in the retention of calcium in the body. Ripe oranges contain as much as 10 percent fruit sugar, which can be immediately assimilated by the body.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Oranges are the most popular source of Vitamin C. They are excellent for treating over acid body conditions, constipation, or a particularly sluggish intestinal tract. In cases of acidosis, drink orange juice, or eat oranges after meals. If the intestinal tract is not functioning properly, drink a large glass of orange juice upon wakening in the morning, or about one-half hour before breakfast. In the cases of stomach acid deficiency, start the meal with a peeled orange or a glass of orange juice.

Those who suffer from tooth decay or poor gums are probably lacking in vitamin C and should drink large amounts of orange juice for a period of a few weeks. People with gastric and duodenal ulcers are deficient in ascorbic acid, and their diet should be supplemented with a high potency vitamin C such as that found in fresh oranges and orange juice.

Orange are very good for elimination. They stir up the acid accumulations and catarrhal settlements in the body very quickly. However, sometimes this is not a good idea if the channels of elimination, such as skin and kidneys, are not able to take out these acids fast enough.

Eat the whole orange, excluding the very outer skin, to get all the good from the fruit. The luscious orange is rated tops in importance in the contribution to health.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 164

Protein: 2.9g

Fat: 0.7 g

Carbohydrates: 36.6 g

Calcium: 108 mg

Phosphorus: 75 mg

Iron: 1.3 mg

Vitamin A: 9101 I.U.

Thiamine: .25mg

Riboflavin: .08 mg

Niacin: .08 mg

Ascorbic acid: 162 mg

Pear

December 18, 2017

Pears were used as food long before agriculture was developed as an industry. They are native to the region from the Caspian Sea westward into Europe. Nearly 1000 Years before the Christian Era, Homer referred to pears as growing in the garden of Alcinous. A number of varieties were known prior to the Christian Era. Pliny listed more than forty varieties of pears. Many varieties were known in Italy, France, Germany, and England by the time America was discovered.

Both pear seeds and trees were brought to the United States by the early settlers. Like the apple, pear trees thrived and produced well from the very start. As early as 1771 the Prince Nursery on Long Island, New York, greatest of the colonial fruit nurseries, listed forty-two varieties. The introduction of pears to California is attributed to the Franciscan Fathers. Led by Father Junipera Serra, in 1776, they planted seeds carried from the Old World.

In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries greatly improved pears were developed, particularly in Belgium and France. In 1850, pears were so popular in France that the fruit was celebrated in song and verse, and it was the fashion among the elite to see who could raise the best specimen. When the better varieties were brought into the United States a disease attacked the bark, roots, and other soft tissues of the trees, and practically destroyed the industry in the East. The European pear thrives primarily in California, Oregon, and Washington and in a few narrow strips on the south and east sides of Lake Michigan, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario, where there are relatively cool summers and mild winters. Under these conditions, the trees are not as susceptible to pear blight, or “fire blight.”

Another kind of pear, distinguished from the European “butter fruit” with its soft, melting flesh, had developed in Asia, and is known as the sand pear. These have hard flesh with numerous “sand” or grit cells. Sand pears reached the United States before 1840, by way of Europe, and proved resistant to fire blight. Hybrids of sand pears and European varieties are now grown extensively in the eastern and southern parts of the United States. They are inferior to the European pear, but still better to eat than the original sand pear. The best European varieties grow in the Pacific States, and from these states come most of the pears used for sale as fresh fruit for processing.

Pears are grown in all sections of the country, but the Western states (California, Oregon, and Washington), produce approximately 87 to 90 percent of all pears sold commercially. Practically all pears that are processed come from the Western states.

More than 3000 varieties are known in the United States, but less than a dozen are commercially important today. The Bartlett outranks all other varieties in quantity of production and in value. It is the principal variety grown in California and Washington and is also the important commercial pear in New York and Michigan. It originated in England and was first distributed by a Mr. Williams, a nurseryman in Middlesex. In all other parts of the world it is known as Williams or Williams’ Bon-Chretien. It was brought to the United States in 1798 or 1799 and planted at Roxbury, Massachusetts under the name of Williams’ Bon Chretien. In 1817 Enoch Bartlett acquired the estate, and not knowing the true name of the pear, distributed it under his own name. The variety is large, and bell-shaped, and has smooth clear yellow skin that is often blushed with red. It has white, finely grained flesh, and is juicy and delicious.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Pears have a fairly high content of vitamin C and iron. They are good in all elimination diets and are a wonderful digestive aid. They help normalize bowel activity.

Pears have an alkaline excess. They are a good energy producer in the winter, when used as a dried fruit, and are a delicious summer food when fresh.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 236

Protein: 2.6 g

Fat: 1.5 g

Carbohydrates: 59.6 g

Calcium: 49 mg

Phosphorus: 60 mg

Iron: 1.1 mg

Vitamin A: 90 I.U.

Thiamine: 0.8 mg

Riboflavin: 0.16 mg

Niacin: 0.5 mg

Ascorbic acid: 15 mg

Pineapple

December 11, 2017

Pineapples were cultivated in the West Indies long before Columbus visited there. But after his voyage to the island of Guadeloupe, it was recorded in Spain that Columbus had “discovered” the fruit. The pineapple is native to tropical America and was known to the Indians as na-na, meaning fragrance, and to the Spanish explorers as piiia, because of its resemblance to a pine cone.

History does not record how pineapples first reached Hawaii. For many years they grew wild. Then, a young Bostonian started commercial production of them there in 1901 on twelve acres of land. His company has enlarged to the present 25,000 acres. The plant of this fruit grows from two to four feet high, with a rosette of stiff, sword-shaped leaves growing from its base. Out of the rosette center grows a single, fleshy, scaly-coated fruit that is four to ten inches long. A cluster of sword-shaped leaves surmounts the fruit.

Pineapples are grown in many parts of the world, but the United States is supplied principally from Cuba, Mexico, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico. They may be obtained all year long, but are most abundant from March through July. The peak months are June and July.

A ripe pineapple in quality condition has a fresh, clean appearance, a distinctive darkish orange-yellow color, and a decided fragrance. The “eyes” of the fruit are flat and almost hollow. If the fruit is mature it is usually heavier in proportion to its size. To test for ripeness, pull at the spikes. If they pull out easily, the fruit is ripe; discolored areas, or soft spots, are an indication of bruised fruit.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

High in vitamin C, the pineapple is considered to be a protective fruit. It is wonderful for constipation and poor digestion. The pineapple helps digest proteins, and can be used in elimination diets. It leaves an alkaline ash in the body. Pineapple is thought to have a certain amount of iodine because it grows near the ocean. When buying canned pineapple, make sure it is unsweetened. Pineapple goes well with fruit and nuts, and is good to eat on a fruit diet.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories 123

Protein 1g

Fat 0.5g

Carbohydrates 33g

Calcium 39mg Niacin 0.5mg

Phosphorus 19mg Ascorbic acid 40mg

Iron 1.2mg

Vitamin A: 170 I.U.

Thiamine 0.20mg

Cranberry

November 20, 2017

Cranberries are native to the swampy regions of both the temperate and arctic zones of North America and Europe. Because they grow on slender, curved stalks, suggesting the neck of a crane, they were named “crane-berry”, or “cranberry”.

Long before the first colonists arrived in this country the cranberry was in common use by the Native Americans. The Pilgrims found them in the low marshes near the shore on the Cape Cod peninsula, and the women preserved them as a delicacy and served them with wild turkey at Thanksgiving and Christmas feasts.

Cultivation of the cranberry began early in the nineteenth cen­tury. The earliest records show that the business was largely carried on by retired seamen. Howe and McFarlin were the names of two of these men, and important varieties of cranberries are named for them. By 1870, a flourishing business had developed. It was re­corded in 1832 that ”Captain Henry Hall of Barnstable, Massachu­setts, had then cultivated the cranberry for twenty years,” and that “Mr. F. A. Hayden of Lincoln, Massachusetts, gathered from his farm in 1830, 400 bushels of cranberries which brought him in the Boston market $600.”

It has been said that the old clipper ships out of Gloucester, New Bedford, and the “Down East” ports carried supplies of raw cranberries in casks so that the sailors could help themselves. They did this to prevent scurvy, just as the sailors of England and South­ern Europe used limes to prevent this disease.

Cranberries grow on low, thick vines in a bog. The bogs are built on peat swamps that have been cleared, drained, and leveled. Water must be available and arranged so that the bog can be drained or flooded at the appropriate time. The surface, usually sand, on top of a subsoil that will hold moisture, must be level so the bog can be covered with water to a uniform depth when neces­sary. A cranberry bog takes three to five years to come into full production.

There are only five states that produce the greater supply of cranberries for market. They are, in order of production: Massa­chusetts, Wisconsin, New Jersey, Washington, and Oregon. The berries are marketed from September through March, and the peak months are October, November, and December.

The quality of the berry is determined by its roundness and size, and from its color, which varies from light to dark crimson, depending on the degree of maturity. Some varieties of cranberries are more olive-shaped or oblong. They have a fresh, plump appear­ance combined with a high luster and firmness. Avoid a shriveled, dull, soft-appearing berry.

THERAPEUTIC VALUE

Cranberries have a heavy acid content, and therefore should not be eaten too frequently. They increase the acidity of the urine. Be­ cause of their extremely tart taste, people drown them in sugar syrup, which makes them unfit for human consumption. They are best if cooked first; then add raisins and a little honey.

One of the finest therapeutic uses for cranberries is as a remedy for rectal disturbances, piles, hemorrhoids, and inflammation of the rectal pouch.

NUTRIENTS IN ONE POUND

Calories: 218

Protein: 1.8g

Fat: 3.18g

Carbohydrates: 51.4g

Calcium: 63.5mg

Phosphorus: 50mg

Iron: 2.7mg

Vitamin A: 182I.U.

Thiamine: .13mg

Riboflavin: .09mg

Niacin: 0.45mg

Ascorbic acid: 55mg

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